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Jan '10

History of water

History of water management and recent developments Mexico has a long and well established tradition of water management that began in the 30s when the country began to make major investments in water storage facilities and the development of expand groundwater for irrigation and water supply to a rapidly growing population. The Land Code of 1934, enacted during the Cardenas administration (1934-1940), established the federal government’s power to define the “public interest” which could be exploited water. Under this legislation, between 30 and 70, the rural community and the commons were subject to direct federal control over water. (Sanderson) private land owners, on the other hand, took advantage of the benefits of federally subsidized irrigation infrastructure and guaranteed market prices.Over time, large landowners largely capitalized, while smallholders, to the ’70s, suffered the effects of water monopolies. (Scott) In the ’70s, the Mexican government signed a tripartite agreement with the World Bank and United Nations Program for Development in preparing the National Hydrological Plan (NHP) of 1975, which identified the need to enact a new law on Water and a National Water Authority (ANA) as well as to decentralize responsibilities and promote water user participation in the operation and maintenance (O M).The NHP promoted considerable achievements in institutional development and infrastructure: (i) the transfer of responsibilities from the federal government on water supply and sanitation to municipalities and states in 1983, (ii) establishment of the Mexican Institute of Water Technology in 1986, (iii) in 1988 created the National Water Commission ( CONAGUA) and (iv) in 1989 established the first Council in Lerma-Chapala Basin, comprising water users in various sectors. During the 90s, there was a rapid development of groundwater and aquifer extraction combined demand for agricultural, urban and industrial. The federal government also has decentralized the responsibility for large irrigation infrastructure to autonomous agencies (irrigation districts).In 1992, Mexico adopted the National Water Law (LAN), which contained specific provisions for CONAGUA function, structure and functioning of the watershed councils, public participation in water management, etc.. In 1993 he ended Cutzamala system, one of the largest mining projects in the world. The system pumps Cutzamala 19m3 of water per second to metropolitan Mexico City. In 1997 he created the first technical committee to manage a groundwater aquifer overexploited in the state of Guanajuato. With the amendment in 2004 of the National Water Act, the thirteen regions of the CNA decentralized became watershed organizations that acted as the technical arm of a larger watershed council comprising the interests of civil society, including industry private citizen groups. (Scott)

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