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Dec '09

Conflicts in Central Asia

Introduction The world we live in is going through a period with many world conflicts, caused by various issues such as religion, natural resources and territory. These conflicts involve more than one State, and in some cases lead to armed clashes, but in others, however, be solved by reaching an agreement or through the intervention of a third. Given the many conflicts that exist, in this paper we focus on one specific, located in the Central Asian region, and involves Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. What created this conflict was the religion (cultural differences) and two natural resources: gas and oil, provoking major world conflicts today. Religious Background: The region of Central Asia, bordering China, Russia and Afghanistan, which is made up of: Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan, has discord differences by religion to be professed. This region was part of the Soviet Union, and from 1991 until 11 September 2001, the leaders have had very close ties with Moscow. Afghan’s security interests are inextricably linked to those of the US underscores who is asking that the US president to reassure the Afghan people. In contrast the population, the vast majority is Muslim has been restricted to practice an Islam that is different from the officer. Islam promoted by these states, which are mostly authoritarian prohibits fundamentalist movements, and thus control the population by imposing as it should be his religion. However, some extremist groups have infiltrated Central Asia, as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, who was trained in Afghanistan by the Taliban regime. In Tajikistan, for example, after a civil war in the middle of the 90 was signed a truce and form a government coalition between former rulers of the Soviet era and former Muslim guerrillas. Since the fall of the Taliban, the extremist Muslims who intend to form a caliphate from the Caspian Sea to China, have seen their power diminished, but local governments continue to use counter-terrorism as an excuse to exercise tight control of the population. Natural Resources: In addition, Central Asia is a region with large deposits of oil and gas, which has attracted major world powers like the United States. Since the invasion of Iraq, the U.S. government decided that its energy sources to feed its growing industry will be oil. The continuing instability in the region by action of the Iraqi resistance, the internal conflict between Sunnis and Shiites, the resumption of nuclear activity by Iran, the Israeli Palestinian conflict, the presence of extremist Muslim groups and the defiant attitude of the governments Syria and Lebanon, pushed the U.S. to pursue its energy sources in the region of Central Asia. As the Caspian Sea, which partly belongs to the countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), in the past decade have discovered significant deposits of oil. But the problem is that several countries bordering the inland sea and seek to take advantage of all the profits. These countries are: Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Currently, there is no international law to determine that portion of the sea floor belongs to each country. Foreign interests in the Asian region before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the U.S. had no share in the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. In late September, before going to war against the Taliban, the Bush administration to ask for Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov, a base called K2, at Kyrgyzstan’s Manas base as an airport Tajikistan.

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