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Mar '10

Artificial chromosomes

Main article: Yeast artificial chromosome Main article: Bacterial artificial chromosome Main article: Mammalian artificial chromosome artificial chromosomes are chromosomes that have been manipulated through genetic engineering tools to submit precise structures that enable their integration , persistence and replication in certain organisms. The yeast artificial chromosome or YAC (English acronym for Yeast artificial chromosome) is a type of cloning vector to be high capacity, in fact, the highest capacity (200 kb 3,000 kb). They were first described in 1983. is a vector that replicates the characteristics of a normal yeast chromosome, and that carries a centromere and telomere terminal. This allows cloning (ie, multiply) in yeast DNA sequences of up to one million base pairs or more, by acting as a yeast chromosome itself.They are used in construction of genomic libraries, being extensively used in the early years of the Human Genome Project. However, they are more volatile than other vectors such as BACs (English acronym for “Bacterial artificial chromosome or artificial chromosome bacterial), who have ended up prevailing. The latter are also used cloning vectors to clone DNA fragments of 100 to 300 kb in size in Escherichia coli. Its structure is similar to the F-factor plasmid found naturally in the bacterial species.

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